Digital Interpretation of Cultural Heritage: 3D Modeling and Materialization of 2D Artworks for Future Museums

By Galina Ivanovna Pasko, Alexander Alexandrovich Pasko, Turlif Vilbrandt, Arnaldo Luis Lixandrão Filho and Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva.

Published by The International Journal of the Inclusive Museum

Format Price
Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

One of the directions of development for museums is exhibiting virtual three-dimensional (3D) models of cultural artefacts. Currently these include objects of architecture, jewelry, crafts and other essentially 3D items. We present the creation of 3D computer models from 2D artworks and their digital fabrication in the form of physical tangible objects. This approach corresponds to the digital interpretation and reuse - aspects of cultural heritage preservation. We illustrate our approach by 3D modeling of complex spiral shells depicted in the “Rind” and other drawings by M.C. Escher.

Keywords: Digital Preservation, Cultural Heritage, Reconstruction, Function Representation, Digital Fabricatio, Digital Materialization, M.C. Escher

International Journal of the Inclusive Museum, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp.63-80. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 1.113MB).

Dr. Galina Ivanovna Pasko

Associate Professor, Head of Software Engineering Department, oftware Engineering Department, Architecture and Computer Engineering Faculty, European University of Lefke, Lefke, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Cyprus

Galina graduated from the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Russia. She received her Dr. Eng. degree from Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Japan with the thesis titled “Shape modeling with some applications in cultural heritage”. She was teaching as an Assistant Professor at Al Ghurair University, UAE and as Associate Professor at University of New York/ Tirana (UNYT), Albania. Currently, Galina is the Head of Software Engineering Department and an Associate Professor of the Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Architecture and Engineering of European University of Lefke/ TRNC. Her teaching experience covers wide range of undergraduate and master courses and closely connected to her research, which includes: function-based shape modeling and multidimensional modeling, visualization, computer animation, digital fabrication and preservation of cultural heritage. Her research concentrated on the solving actual long-standing problems in the following computer graphics areas: bounded blending operations, space-time blending and metamorphosis, trimmed implicit surfaces. She has more than 50 papers in major international journals and conferences on the subject sited in more than 60 international publications. She is a Deputy Editor-in-Chief of Journal “Computer Graphics & Geometry” and IPC member of many international conferences and journals. More information can be found at the

Alexander Alexandrovich Pasko

Professor, National Centre for Computer Animation, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Dorset, UK

Alexander graduated from, received a PhD degree from, and was a senior researcher at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Russia. He was an assistant professor at the University of Aizu, Japan; associate and full professor at the Faculty of Computer and Information Sciences of the Hosei University in Tokyo, Japan. Recently he is Professor of National Centre for Computer Animation, Bournemouth University, UK. His research and educational interests include: Solid Modeling, Volume and Multidimensional Modeling, Computer Animation and Computer Art.

Turlif Vilbrandt

CTO, Uformia AS, Norway

Turlif has been researching methods and processes to exactly describe (computationally capture) the complexity and quality of natural and real things for 20 years. Turlif developed a generalized and holistic approach for accurately modeling complex real world objects called Digital Materialization (DM). He established one of the first (and still few) companies to engineer and apply this technology using personal computers. This unique approach has taken Turlif and his company across multiple disciplines and the globe. His ideas and technology have been applied to diverse applications over the years, from specialized environmental drilling to ancient temple reconstructions. Alongside this work, Turlif was instrumental in bringing together a diverse group of researchers and helping to founded two non-profit organizations - Digital Materialization Group (DMG) and NextFab. Over the last decade DMG and the HyperFun Project have worked to extend and construct a functional and open DM platform. In addition to creating and developing these emerging technologies, Turlif has made contributions in the areas of digital historical preservation, virtualized transparent learning, and decentralized, developmental, social, and legal frameworks. During the last decade, in rural Japan and Norway, Turlif founded and helped establish digital community centers dedicated to IT education and personalized micro-manufacturing. He is also an active participant of the Free, Libre and Open Source (FLOS) community and has created new copyright licensing, CGPL, to deal with the ethical issues surrounding digital fabrication and DM technology. Currently he is living above the arctic circle in Norway where he is a founder and the Director of Technology for a newly formed startup, Uformia AS and a Computer Science Doctoral Candidate in London. He is also an active participant of the ASTM Committee on Additive Manufacturing Technologies and directs, manages and contributes to several international organizations and ongoing projects including and Turlif can be contacted at

Arnaldo Luis Lixandrão Filho

Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer - CTI, Brazil

Arnaldo L. Lixandrão Filho graduated with Bachelor and Teaching degree in Physics by State University of Campinas - Unicamp - Brazil. At the present he is doing his masters from University of São Paulo - Brazil in Mechanical Engineering. He has great expertise in experimental physics, including new magnetic material development, characterization using X-ray, magnetometers (SquID and VSM), PPMS and metallography. Nowadays he is a beginner researcher of the Renato Archer Research Center - CTI - working with hardware and software development for an open-source project called Fab@CTI, a multi-material additive manufacturing machine for bio-engineering applications as branch from the Fab@Home project.

Dr. Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva

Head of Division, Threedimensional Technologies, Renato Archer Information Technology Center - CTI, Campinas, SP, Brazil

Jorge V L Silva graduated as an Electrical Engineer from the Federal University of Espirito Santo - Brazil and received his master in Robotics and PhD in Chemical Engineering from State University of Campinas - Unicamp - Brazil. He is a senior researcher of the Renato Archer Research Center - CTI - working with physical and virtual 3D technologies for multidisciplinary applications, including software and surgical planning for medical applications, rapid prototyping, 3D modeling and engineering simulation.


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